About Mongolia

Country in brief



Capital Ulaanbaatar

Population 3068650  (February 19, 2016, NSO)

Area (in sq. km) 1,564,120

Language Mongolian

Boundaries Mongolia is bordered with Russian Federation (2,166 miles-3,485 km) to the North, with China (2,906 miles 4,677 km) to the East, South and West.

Mongolia is one of the elevated countries in the world with one of Eurasia's highest capitals. Average altitude: 1,580m above sea level. The capital city Ulaanbaatar: 1,380m above sea level. The highest point is the “Tavan Bogd” mountain (4,374m) in the west and the lowest is the “Khokh Nuur” lake depression in the east - 554m above sea-level.

The country's geography is characterized by a great diversity. Mongolia is divided into six basic natural zones, differing in climate, landscape, soil, flora and fauna. Due to its over 200 sunny days a year, Mongolia is known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" or "Country of Blue Sky".

Herding livestocks has been the major economic activity of nomads throughout the history. Encouraged by the Soviet Union, industrialization, largely based on wool processing and extraction of coal, copper, gold, fluorspar and other minerals has begun since the early 20th century.

Mongolia is a Parliamentary Republic. The people elect the members of the State Great Hural(Parliament), which appoints the Prime Minister, who nominates the Cabinet in consultation with the President. The President is directly elected. The State Great Hural of Mongolia is the highest authority of State power and the supreme legislative power is vested only upon the State Great Hural. The State Great Hural is unicameral and consists of 76 members elected by the mixed electoral system for a term of four years.

The Parliament has adopted the National Green Development Strategy and other important legislations in 2014, including the laws on minerals, preservation of cultural heritages and budget transparency (‘Glass Account’). The Law on Glass Account requires public organizations to disclose budgetary revenue and expenditures publicly.

Mongolia's HDI rank increased by 3 positions in 2014 and it is now ranked 103 and shares the top position among medium level development countries. The fifth MDG Progress Report estimated that Mongolia has achieved more than 70 percent of the MDG targets. According to the Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index,  Mongolia has moved up from 83 in 2013 to 80 in 2014.

Mongolia continued its support to South-South collaboration. The Landlocked Developing Countries Think Tank is operational and the Mongolia International Cooperation Agency was set up.

A glimpse of history

In 1206, Chingis Khan founded the Great Mongol Empire which became the largest empire in the world history. In the XVI century, Mongolia came under Manju rule but won its independence in 1911. The socialist revolution took a place in 1921 and the Mongolian People's Republic was established with Soviet influence. Mongolia became a UN member state in 1961.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Mongolia succeeded its own relatively peaceful democratic revolution in the early 1990’s which led to a multi-party system, the latest 1992 Constitution and a transition to a market economy.

  • Mongolia Tourism

  • Ulaanbaatar winter tourism 

  • Ulaanbaatar Summer Tourism 


Human Development Index Rank


Life expectancy at birth, total

97.5 %

Literacy rate

11.7 %

Economic Growth (2013)

9.1 %

Unemployment rate

14.9 %

Parliamentary seats held by women (HDR2013)

3.07 mln


21.6 %

Poverty rate

4,056.4 $

GDP per capita


Human Development Index





3,075,419 (Mar 2016,NSO)

Area (in sq. km)




Human Development Index

0,727 ( HDR 2015)

Poverty rate (estimated)

21,6% (NSO, 2013)

GNI per capita

$4,280 (2012, HDR 2013)

GDP per capita

$4,116 (2015 estimate, WB data)

Inflation rate

12,4% (WB data, 2015)

Government Building-2, United Nation's street-5/1 Ulaanbaatar 15160 MONGOLIA

Contact us

Tel: (+976)-51-266302 (ASEM Office)

Fax: 976-51-263333

Email: aebf15@mi.gov.mn

Website: aebf15.mn